Black Box Testing: Types and Techniques
Black Box Testing is regarded as an influential technique that helps to examine the application under test (AUT). This arrangement is unique since the AUT is tested without stressing on the internal code structure or the implementation specifics related to the software. If we talk in a precise language, black box testing is primarily used to investigate the system against outside factors that are accountable for software failures.
The purpose of this testing approach is to keep a check on the input that enters the software, and the output which is formed. You need to be receptive and smart for the exact use of black-box testing. Some of the situations where black box testing techniques are required include:
- To conveniently test software usability
- Black box testing helps in examining the functionality of AUT
- The testing approach sights the application directly through a user’s viewpoint
- This testing provides an extensive outlook about the software
- Black box testing examines the software/application as a complete system
Types of Black Box Testing
At present, the scope of Black Box Testing is immense and there are different types associated with it. Below mentioned are the three popular testing types that are usually preferred for a thorough examination of the software.
Functional Testing: This particular type focuses on the functional requirements associated with a system. Software testers are responsible for carrying out this test.
Non-Functional Testing: This black box testing type doesn’t associate with any specific functionality. It is solely focused on non-functional requirements like usability, scalability and performance.
Regression Testing: Black box testing also includes Regression Testing that is conducted after code fixes or system upgrades. The motive is to examine the new code and its effect on the existing code.
Various Techniques for Black Box Testing
Looking at the range of black-box testing its approach involves several techniques. Below mentioned are some of the prominent techniques that are used for fulfilling software testing needs.
Boundary Value Analysis
This is a popular black-box testing technique that also functions as the base to equivalence testing. The use of Boundary Value Analysis is centred at testing the software using test cases that involve extreme values of test data. To be precise, BVA helps identify errors that can shoot as a result of restrictions of input data.
State Transition Testing
Under this testing technique, the testers make use of inputs, outputs as well as the state of the system all along with the testing phase. State Transition Testing examines the software in relation to a sequence of transitions occurring within the test data.
It totally depends on the type of software/application that needs to be tested. State Transition Testing will look out for behavioural changes in the system on the whole.
The approach for this testing technique is quite exquisite as it examines the input and output through segregating the input into equal classes. As per Equivalence Partitioning, the data needs to be examined at least once in order to ensure maximum test coverage. You can view it as a comprehensive testing method that further reduces the repetition of inputs.
Decision Table Testing
Test cases created under Decision Table Testing are based on different possibilities. A decision table format is structured for the various test cases to check each condition and offer a correct output. This is suitably preferred when there are multiple input combinations and possibilities.
Advantages of Black Box Testing
For testers, Black Box Testing is a helpful method since it provides multiple advantages. Not only the quality of the software, but the correct implementation of black-box testing tools and techniques can also help achieve reliability, efficiency and a lot more.
Below mentioned are the main benefits of black-box testing:
- Testing is conducted post the development stage; both processes are independently performed.
- There is no requirement of technical knowledge of carrying out black-box testing.
- Black box testing works perfectly with functional testing services and implementations.
- Test cases can be structured before development and even after the specification check.
- Black box testing is basically for an extensive coverage that is generally skipped by most testers
- It is believed that the Black box testing approach is somewhat similar to Agile.
Disadvantages of Black Box Testing
- Operating with a broad sample set of test inputs might get really exhausting.
- The possibility of unclear results and dead ends are fairly high.
- If you lack precise and well-defined specifications, there can be trouble in designing test cases.
- Black box testing results can at times be overestimated.
- Black-box testing techniques can end up being redundant if the software developer has already implemented them.
Maintaining quality for a software or application requires strict supervision and testing procedures. Black box testing offers a simplified version of investigation without any necessary knowledge of technical terminologies. Being a renowned software testing company, ImpactQA is well-equipped to perform such tests with the utmost ease. You can connect with testing experts for attaining information about the various approaches of black-box testing.