Which are the Frameworks for Automation Testing?

Test automation framework utilizes software for executing tests and after that find out final the end results and the projected results are the same or not. Each and every company needs software testing satisfactorily and fast too. To achieve this, organizations are changing to utilize automated testing strategies and methods. In short, the best framework or Automation Testing is a valuable mix of a few guidelines, coding ideas, coding standards, methodology, practices, hierarchies, modularity, test data injections, reporting mechanism, and so on to build automation testing. In this manner, the client can follow such core principles while automating application to take the advantages of beneficial results.

Types of Test Automation Frameworks

The best framework for automation testing is as follows:


Carina is chiefly a Java-based test automation framework built on top of the well-admired open-source solutions (TestNG, Selenium, and Appium) which allows reducing dependence on a specific technology stack. Unites every single testing layers: mobile applications (hybrid, native, web), WEB applications, databases, REST services; Assists each common and the famous browsers (Chrome, Firefox, IE, Safari) and mobile devices (Android/ iOS) – it reuses test automation code between Android/ IOS up to 75-85%; As far as this framework is constructed in Java, it is cross-platform. Tests may be simply executed both on UNIX or Windows OS.


Selenium is an incredibly admired open-source automation testing tool. There are two important parts to Selenium. One is Selenium WebDriver, which is the base framework that assists you to deal things like click buttons, set text in fields, and check values on the screen. Another part is known to be as Selenium IDE, a plug-in for FireFox that you can utilize to record the actions you take and the export them to the language (any) to run later.


If you are searching for a Java-based framework that integrates with Behavior-driven development (BDD) tools like Cucumber and JBehave (keep your test scenarios at a high level) while accommodating low-level execution facts in your reports, Serenity (also called as Thucydides) might will be the best tool. This tool is perfectly designed to make writing automated acceptance & regression tests easy. It acts as a wrapper on top of BDD and Selenium WebDriver tools.


It is a Behavior Driven Development (BDD) tool which is used for writing acceptance tests for the web applications. The key qualities are as follows:

  • Fast and easy set up and execution;
  • Allows reusing code in the tests;
  • Cross-platform;
  • Previously implemented in Ruby, extended to Java framework;
  • Both specifications, & test documentation, is uploaded in a sole up-to-date document;
  • Useful for the users not familiar with testing. In short, those who can’t read the code;


Compared to other tools on this list, Cypress is a more developer-centric framework that significantly focuses to make TDD a reality for developers. It has a separate architecture than Selenium. The fact is while Selenium WebDriver runs slightly outside the browser, Cypress runs inside of it. It also makes it easy for dropping a debugger into your application, which in turn, makes it easier to use the developer tools while you are developing.


Web Application Testing in Ruby is the oldest framework which is perfectly designed to support users to automate testing a web browser. Just like Selenium, it is a group of tools. The different library in the WATIR suite offers exceptional functions. Whilst WATIR will only support IE running on the Windows Operating System, you can access many others using an exceptional execution of WebDriver called Watir-WebDriver


Appium is perfectly designed to test mobile applications. It is built with the plan that you shouldn’t be recompiling your application or modifies it in any way to test it.

Apache JMeter

Apache JMeter is flawlessly designed for load testing and can be used to test performance both on static and dynamic resources, Web dynamic apps. This specific tool can simulate a heavy load on a server, network, or object to test its strength or to scrutinize and calculate overall performance under diverse load types.


Robotium is a test framework made to make the task simpler to write powerful and solid automatic black-box UI tests, particularly for Android. With the help of Robotium, developers are able to write system, function, & user acceptance test scenarios covering several Android actions.

These are the top test automation frameworks for 2019. It is always better to automate the testing process to save extra money, effort, time, and lessen the number of testing errors.

BDD (Behaviour-Driven Development) – Nuts & the Bolts

BDD (Behaviour-Driven Development) is an agile development technique which encourages collaboration between Business, Dev and QA. BDD first coined in 2009 by Dan North. It is an extensive approach of Test Driven Development, Acceptance Test-Driven Approach, and Domain Driven Design to snag down their drawbacks.

BDD came in to picture since requirements are often interpreted differently by teams. It leads loss of time in back and forth communication while refining the exact requirements. So as to save complexity in process BDD evolved and currently many organizations have adopted it.

BDD adopts three basic principles:

  • Enough is enough: The sufficient amount of time should be taken for planning, development, and testing.
  • Delivering value with quality: Shooting in the dark does not make sense as it hampers client, stakeholders, and users at the same time. So, proper analysis of requirements is a thumb up which BDD follows.
  • Behavior is the crux: Focuses more on behavior of product that will lead to better delivery and happy customers.

BDD (Behaviour-Driven Development) can be implemented using Gherkin language with BDD tool. Some of the widely used tools which BDD supports are Specflow in C#, Cucumber in Ruby, Freshen in PHP, and Jbehave is in Java.

A question may arise in your mind what is Gherkin? Everything needs a representation so does BDD, hence a form of representation Gherkin is introduced which is easy to understand domain-specific language or simply layman’s language. It defines the structure and syntax of the tests. Moreover, it also supports over 40 languages which boost documentation as well as test cases.

Gherkin Source file format has ‘.feature’ the extension which is commonly known as Feature file. Feature file is so simple which everybody across the board (developer, tester, BA and business) can understand. This feature file contains a list of independent scenarios, written using keywords like Given, When, Then etc. Mapping of requirement with scenarios is done using Feature file.

Now, the next step is binding these readable specifications to machine language which is achieved by using any BDD tool Specflow, Cucumber, etc. These tools convert human readable format into machine code.

How BDD works?

BA/ SME create Feature files in domain specific language then Feature and Scenarios are agreed by Dev, BA and QAE teams. Dev develops code for the same scenarios and QA creates BDD tests using tools and framework. These tests are run as a part of Continuous Integration for every build and finally, it is shared with the entire Sprint team.

Implementation of BDD using Specflow

As described above User Story are the requirements that are tied together. The User story is a scenario where an object performs an activity and end results or state of the activity are validated and tested later.

Once client or stakeholders are done with the requirements, it is converted into Feature files using Gherkin. Feature file is the entry point of the tests which works as the script as well as document. It may contain a scenario or a list of scenarios.

Gherkin has below-mentioned components that are used while writing the executable Scenarios:

  • Feature
  • Scenario
  • Given
  • When, And, Then, but
  • Scenario Outline
  • Examples

Later these Scenarios as converted into Step Definition using Specflow and Selenium. Every line in Feature file transforms into methods and code can be developed using Selenium and C# (depending on what BDD tool is being used). All together when enough Scenarios are covered, it is considered as deployed for all the Sprint teams.

Along with these positive aspects, BDD (Behaviour-Driven Development) holds some downside too. The primary downside is if any requirement is the unclear and User/Client not available to discuss then it becomes difficult to work with unclear feature. Also, clarification among teams consumes a lot of time every so often. On the first side BDD nails down all the leaps in the dark ensuring more successive approach, leveraging it many firms are boosting their client list and projects.