Moving from Selenium to Protractor for Test Automation

Protractor is an end-to-end Testing Framework for testing Angular as well as AngularJS applications. It helps you runs tests against your application running in a real browser, interacting in exactly the same way a user would. The first version of Protractor was released in the month of July 2013, when the framework was just a prototype of a particular testing framework. Google, however, with the support of the testing community, is evolving the framework to follow the evolution of AngularJS and to meet the needs of the community that is using AngularJS.

Why use Protractor over Selenium?

Test Your Application like a User

Protractor framework is built on top of WebDriverJS, which uses native events and browser-specific drivers to interact with your application exactly like a user would. It is based on Behaviour Driven approach which allows even a non automation tester to test the application without expertise in automation tool. Example –

describe(‘angularjs homepage’, function() {
 it(‘should greet the named user’, function() {
   // Load the AngularJS homepage.

   var greeting = element(by.binding(‘yourName’));

   // Used to assert that the text element has the required expected value.
   // Protractor patches ‘expect’ to understand promises.

   expect(greeting.getText()).toEqual(‘Hello Julie!’);

Advantages over Selenium

JavaScript automation frameworks involve working on asynchronous execution, callbacks, anonymous functions and promise, which is a sequential activity just like finding an object and perform operations on it. Another advantage of transitioning to Protractor/JavaScript is that both the application and the test codebase would be written in the same language.

For Angular Apps

Protractor provides support for Angular-specific locator bindings, which allows you to test Angular-specific web elements without any need for additional setup effort. It has extra locators compared to selenium webdriver. Examples include model, repeater, binding etc.

Angular JS applications have some extra HTML attributes like ng-repeater, ng-controller, ng-model which are not included in Selenium locators. Selenium is not able to identify those web elements using today used Selenium code. Protractor on top of Selenium can handle and control these operations in Web Applications.

Example –


Automatic Waiting

When it comes to waiting for elements on a web page, there is no need to add waits and sleeps to your test. Protractor automatically executes the next step in your test the moment a webpage finishes all pending tasks. There is no need to worry about waiting for your test and webpage to sync in. Protractor, moreover, also speeds up your testing as it avoids the requirement for a lot of “sleeps” and “waits” in your tests, which in turn optimizes sleep and wait times.

Supports Extensibility

Since protractor is a node.js application, can utilize the wide variety of packages that are available in the node. One can extend the framework or add additional features by installing node packages. For example, if you need HTML report you can just use Jasmine HTML Reporter for the clean code you can install eslint or tslint. Likewise, you can install node packages of your choice.

Supports Control Flow

Application Programming Interface (API) is based on promises, which are managed by control flows and adapted for Jasmine. Protractor APIs are purely asynchronous. It maintains a queue of pending promises, called the control flow, to keep execution organized.

Jasmine System Architecture
Jasmine System Architecture

Asynchronous Behavior

Works on NodeJS, so that the asynchronous process helps to speeding up the execution.
Here is how you it is achieved.
1) Promise Manager/ Control Flow

It is an abstraction that makes every action to be called one by one, like a queue. Every action returns a special object – Promise. These represent the result of async operation.

2) Second way – async/await

It is new abstraction around promises objects and allows easily chaining actions one by one. The advantage in this is native language construction, instead of Promise Manager, which makes your code look like synchronized, with try/catch and other familiar constructions.

describe(‘angularjs homepage’, function() {
 it(‘should greet the named user’, async function() {
   await browser.get(‘’);
   await element(by.model(‘yourName’)).sendKeys(‘Julie’);
   var greeting = element(by.binding(‘yourName’));
   expect(await greeting.getText()).toEqual(‘Hello Julie!’);

“await” is like “suspend code execution until a promise returned from the action is resolved”.

Images and Screenshots

Image comparison is very easy in protractor and it works great. Protractor helps you take screenshots on demand and create them in any place needed. You just need to specify the type of Reporter that you want to use.

Example –

jasmine.getEnv().addReporter(new HtmlReporter(){
this.specDone = function(result){
if(result.failedExpectations.length >  0){
//take Screenshot

Conclusion/ Summary

There is a big world of Protractor out there and there are hundreds of packages available in the market offered by NPM to add more features to your test in addition to simple test scenarios.

Which are the Frameworks for Automation Testing?

Test automation framework utilizes software for executing tests and after that find out final the end results and the projected results are the same or not. Each and every company needs software testing satisfactorily and fast too. To achieve this, organizations are changing to utilize automated testing strategies and methods. In short, the best framework or Automation Testing is a valuable mix of a few guidelines, coding ideas, coding standards, methodology, practices, hierarchies, modularity, test data injections, reporting mechanism, and so on to build automation testing. In this manner, the client can follow such core principles while automating application to take the advantages of beneficial results.

Types of Test Automation Frameworks

The best framework for automation testing is as follows:


Carina is chiefly a Java-based test automation framework built on top of the well-admired open-source solutions (TestNG, Selenium, and Appium) which allows reducing dependence on a specific technology stack. Unites every single testing layers: mobile applications (hybrid, native, web), WEB applications, databases, REST services; Assists each common and the famous browsers (Chrome, Firefox, IE, Safari) and mobile devices (Android/ iOS) – it reuses test automation code between Android/ IOS up to 75-85%; As far as this framework is constructed in Java, it is cross-platform. Tests may be simply executed both on UNIX or Windows OS.


Selenium is an incredibly admired open-source automation testing tool. There are two important parts to Selenium. One is Selenium WebDriver, which is the base framework that assists you to deal things like click buttons, set text in fields, and check values on the screen. Another part is known to be as Selenium IDE, a plug-in for FireFox that you can utilize to record the actions you take and the export them to the language (any) to run later.


If you are searching for a Java-based framework that integrates with Behavior-driven development (BDD) tools like Cucumber and JBehave (keep your test scenarios at a high level) while accommodating low-level execution facts in your reports, Serenity (also called as Thucydides) might will be the best tool. This tool is perfectly designed to make writing automated acceptance & regression tests easy. It acts as a wrapper on top of BDD and Selenium WebDriver tools.


It is a Behavior Driven Development (BDD) tool which is used for writing acceptance tests for the web applications. The key qualities are as follows:

  • Fast and easy set up and execution;
  • Allows reusing code in the tests;
  • Cross-platform;
  • Previously implemented in Ruby, extended to Java framework;
  • Both specifications, & test documentation, is uploaded in a sole up-to-date document;
  • Useful for the users not familiar with testing. In short, those who can’t read the code;


Compared to other tools on this list, Cypress is a more developer-centric framework that significantly focuses to make TDD a reality for developers. It has a separate architecture than Selenium. The fact is while Selenium WebDriver runs slightly outside the browser, Cypress runs inside of it. It also makes it easy for dropping a debugger into your application, which in turn, makes it easier to use the developer tools while you are developing.


Web Application Testing in Ruby is the oldest framework which is perfectly designed to support users to automate testing a web browser. Just like Selenium, it is a group of tools. The different library in the WATIR suite offers exceptional functions. Whilst WATIR will only support IE running on the Windows Operating System, you can access many others using an exceptional execution of WebDriver called Watir-WebDriver


Appium is perfectly designed to test mobile applications. It is built with the plan that you shouldn’t be recompiling your application or modifies it in any way to test it.

Apache JMeter

Apache JMeter is flawlessly designed for load testing and can be used to test performance both on static and dynamic resources, Web dynamic apps. This specific tool can simulate a heavy load on a server, network, or object to test its strength or to scrutinize and calculate overall performance under diverse load types.


Robotium is a test framework made to make the task simpler to write powerful and solid automatic black-box UI tests, particularly for Android. With the help of Robotium, developers are able to write system, function, & user acceptance test scenarios covering several Android actions.

These are the top test automation frameworks for 2019. It is always better to automate the testing process to save extra money, effort, time, and lessen the number of testing errors.

Will CI/CD Change the Testing Scenario Like Agile Did?

We have been seeing a lot of instances in recent times in which the terms Agile, DevOps and CI/CD are used interchangeably. Agility, CI/CD, and DevOps are varied tools, important in its own right and all are used for their intended purposes, plus the outcomes are transformational. Agile, now referred to by some of its manifesto authors as the term agility, is focused on removing process barriers and enabling the key folk like developers and customers, to collaborate more closely on accelerating delivery. Even though agility has come to mean distinct things over the past few decades, its fundamentals remain the same: collaborate closely with customers, remove process barriers, produce working software speedily, and respond to (rather than resist) change. Agile began as a product development innovation as it sparked a corporate approach and process revolution. Agile development laid the logical groundwork for the Lean movement in entrepreneurship, which pushed mainstream business leaders to systematize and manage their business model & product development work around a sequence of experiments, testing significant hypothesis along the way. Agile initially grab attention and turn out popular in the startup world, but soon were embraced by famous business leaders around the world.

Continuous Integration/Continuous Delivery
Continuous Integration/Continuous Delivery

According to the new study continuous development (generally call CI/CD (continuous integration and deployment) will change the testing world as much as the agile revolution did. But will it? We have a tendency as technical experts to view Agile as an extensive way of talking about our daily standups or SCRUM. However, from the HBR’s point of view, it meant more than that. The claimers say that CI/CD, which they call “continuous development,” will have a great bang and effect, even, and has started in the “bowels of technology companies & startups.” They suggest that only 20% of IT teams are utilizing some form of what they call “continuous development.” Regardless, the also suggest managers to change their mindset and pay attention and find dramatic strategic benefits of successfully implementing Continuous Development: maximize engineering productivity, faster time to market, fix errors quicker and experiment more rapidly.

Maximize engineering productivity- High-quality engineers love continuous delivery environments as they can instantaneously see how their work adds value to the organization.

Faster time-to-market- Customers enjoy the additional advantages of new features sooner. Plus, the developers receive customer feedback on their creative features very rapidly, which leads to better feature that accurately meet client’s needs.

• Run more experiments rapidly- Frequent releases allow companies to constantly experiment with newly added features and test them on various audiences. In few cases, fresh features are deployed in the code and turned off or on for a specific customer segment by using an easy feature flag.

• Fix errors quicker- Because software code is released in small batches, it is simpler to identify the source of any troubles. Even it is also simpler to understand the consequences of an alteration if you’re making lots of simple steps.

So, Continuous Development is a growing buzz in the software industry. For good reason: it signifies the effective method for software development to attain both external and internal objectives. The insight here for business executives is that continuous delivery is more than merely an obscure software development. It represents the significant cultural weapon and competitive advantage in the battle for talent and customer loyalty.

All You Need to Know about the Internet of Things (IoT)

The era of modern technology began in 1973 with Motorola’s invention of mobile phones. Then the idea of ‘ network of networks ‘ came in 1983, and in 1990 it took a more recognizable form. Smart phones took the world to a whole new level somewhere in the early twenty-first century. Every day, the world’s constant increase in technical intensity is becoming smarter, after the smart mobile phones, we’ve made everything around us shrewd. With the Internet of Things, the latest developments in the technical era make things easy to access.

What is the Internet of Things?

Simply put, this is basically the concept of connecting any device to the Internet (or/and to each other) with an on & off switch. This includes everything from headphones, mobile phones, washing machines, coffee makers, lamps, wearable devices, and just about anything else you might think of. The Internet of Things (IoT) is the inter-networking of physical devices and network connectivity that allows these objects to collect and exchange information.

IoT evolved from the convergence of wireless technologies, micro-electromechanical (MEMS) systems, micro-services, and the Internet. The connection helped to tear down the silo walls between Information technology (IT) and operational technology (OT) making it possible to analyze unstructured machine-generated data for insights that drive improvements.

This all depends on your industry: in terms of IoT, manufacturing is perhaps the farthest forward, as it is useful to organize tools, machines, and people, and track where they are. Farmers also turned to connected sensors to monitor crops as well as cattle, hoping to boost their herds ‘ production, efficiency, and health.

The examples are endless, and all we can predict is that connected devices are likely to penetrate most businesses, just like computers and the web. When the efficiencies are with tools or plants, it’s easy to appreciate the potential benefit, but when it’s office workers who are being squeezed for more productivity, it might take a bit of a dystopian shade: imagine your security access card is used to track where you’re in the building, so your boss can totally spend how much time in the kitchen making tea.

How big is IoT?

HP conducted a small survey estimating the rise of connected devices over the years and surprising results. Are we moving towards a world that is fully automated?

These devices will bridge the gap between the physical & digital world to get a better life, society, and industries ‘ quality and productivity. Smart homes are the most awaited feature with IoT catching up, with brands already competing with smart appliances. Wearables are one more feature trending second on the internet. With the launch of Apple Watch and more devices to flow in, these connected devices are going to keep us hooked with the inter-connected world.

An Explosion of Connected Possibility
An Explosion of Connected Possibility

Industrial Internet of Things

The Industrial Internet of Things originally described the IoT (Internet of Things) as it is used in a number of industries, such as manufacturing, logistics, oil and gas, transportation, energy/ services, mining and metals, aviation, and other industries, and in use cases typical of these industries.

Industrial IoT in the above sense was mainly used to distinguish between use cases, actual use and specific technologies as leveraged primarily for manufacturing and, later, other industries on the one hand and IoT enterprise applications and consumer IoT applications on the other.

IOT and its Impact on Testing

So what impact on software testing will the Internet of Things have? What’s going to change? Just as introducing smartphones and mobile apps brought new concerns to testing (including touchscreen gestures, location awareness, and orientation concerns), testing smart devices on the Internet of Things will also require some recalibration. While tests running against computer software involve keyboard and mouse input, smart device testing must take into account the data received from the sensors of the device as well as user input by tapping and typing. It will be necessary to test “in the wild” will be required.

IOT Testing Types
IOT Testing Types

The Internet of Things could restructure the development of software across the board and release it into an intuitive operation in depth. The incredible growth in IoT customer demand is amazing software companies, with many predicting that the Internet of Things will permeate the industry by 2020. While companies were the largest initial IoT consumers, public enthusiasm for mobile computing devices has recently outstripped corporate interest. Consequently, the present challenge is to increase the scope of IoT testing.

Automated testing is essential for IoT testing to be designed, planned and implemented. IoT is set to be a reminder of when mobile phones and tablets started off in the early 2000s with a whole new set of development and testing requirements. IoT brings new software deployment development and testing requirements.

Looking at the innovative onslaught of the Internet of Things one sees mobility and diversity advancing technology. With test integration and automation, QA teams are well-set to design testing procedures to ensure further IoT technology expansion.

But, Is It Safe to Get Things Connected?

The facts say that many development teams for IoT applications do not follow industry best practices to design safe and secure embedded systems, putting all mobile applications and the entire IoT infrastructure at risk. As technology becomes more intertwined with the physical world, the effects of failures in security are escalating. Like a chess game – where simple rules can lead to nearly limitless possibilities – the complexity of IoT interconnections exceeds our ability to unravel them quickly.

What are the top misconceptions and myths about TDD?

Test Driven Development (TDD) means “Test Driven Development” which is also referred to as test-driven design is a primarily-accepted and broadly acknowledged methodology in the field of software development. It has become well-liked over the last few decades. The primary goal of TDD is to make the code simple, clear, and bug-free. It typically relies on repetitive or tedious unit tests which are executed on the source code being developed. TDD starts with designing as well as developing tests for all functions of an application. The benefits of TDD have been tested on real projects by big giant companies like IBM, Microsoft, and Springer, and they found that such procedure is enormously beneficial. Here are some common misconceptions about TDD (Test Driven Development):

(1) Misconception 1- TDD (Test Driven Development) is a Time-consuming Method

Every single product development team tries to send a feature-rich product under a specific time period and entirely cost-friendly budget. TDD testing is highly effective and creative process to calculate everlasting advantages. In spite of the fact that, incorporating TDD methods in a complicated project is some way or another projected to bungle up pre-chosen due dates. Yet considering it from the other end, we see that a Test Driven Development system implementation actually draws out developer’s productivity and boost the performance of the project. Fundamentally, it reduces the time-consuming procedures by reducing the rate of flaws and defects found during the application deployment stage. All testers concur that later settling is mundane and tricky, which can be repaid by Test Driven Development process.  Any issues in the initial production risk the position and repute of the company in the market. Overall, TDD can reduce customer abandonment, boosts the productivity of the developer, increase the growth factor of your app, and decreases the costs of customer service.

(2) Misconception 2- TDD is a Software Design Technique

The fact is that TDD isn’t a software design technique approach yet it does assists in better software design. By building up the code utilizing the Test Driven Development best practices; it naturally prompts a superior outlined code as it isn’t likely to make significant test cases for a very low-quality code. However, the design of the app still should be taken into consideration by having a reasonable thought of things like data structures, scalability, design patterns, feasibility, and overall system design and architecture considerations.

(3) Misconception 3- Writing all tests before you Start the Code

The reason it is tough for developers to imagine Test Driven Development working is because software design is an iterative, discovery-driven procedure. Contrary to common belief, architects don’t design the entire skyscraper before any work begins. 100% design-up-front is a misconception in every kind of engineering. The design is exploratory. We try something out, throw them away, and try dissimilar things until we achieve something that we like. Now true, if you wrote all tests up front before you wrote a line of execution code, that would hinder the exploration procedure, but that’s not how successful Test Driven Development works. Instead:

  • Write a single test
  • Watch it fail
  • Implement the code
  • Watch the test pass
  • Do again

(4) Misconception 4- Every single thing Needs Unit Tests

Unit tests work perfectly for pure functions — functions which:

  • Given the similar input, always return the same result
  • No adverse effects- (do not mutate shared state, talk to the network, save data, draw things to screen, etc…)

Hence, Unit tests aren’t solely for pure functions, but the less code relies on any shared state or I/O dependencies; the simpler it will be for testing. There are some codes that won’t be easy to unit test. Loads of your code will draw to the screen, capture user input, talk to the network, query a database, and so on. The code responsible for all of that is impure, thus it is tough to test with unit tests. People end up mocking database drivers, user I/O, network I/O, and all sorts of other things in an attempt to follow the rule that your units need to be tested in isolation. Trying to use unit tests for I/O dependent code will cause troubles and those who criticize that test-first is hard are falling into that trap.

To summarize TDD doesn’t replace traditional testing instead, it defines a proven method to ensure successful unit testing. Explore our exceptional Software Testing Services and get better results by utilizing one of them.